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page ouverte le 16.10.2004

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28/05/2012 10:48:03


Définition : ville d'Angleterre; comté de Nottinghamshire; ancienne station romaine Crococalana



Extrait de la carte Map of Roman Britain, de Ordnance Survey

HistoireCrococalana / Brough se trouve sur la Fosse Way, au sud-ouest de Lindum / Lincoln en direction de Ratae / Leicester, ce qui tend à placer sa création au moment de la construction de cette route, entre 50 et 60 après J-C.


A. .Crococalana

* Rivet & Smith, Place-Names of Roman Britain, p 327 : 

- Itinéraire d'Antonin, 477-8 (Iter VI) : CROCOCALANA; variante CROCAOCALANA

idem, 478-11 (Iter VIII) : CROCOCALANO; variante ALANO.


Jackson in Britannia, I (1970), 71, was tempted by an emendation *Crocco-calona 'loud-calling one', a river-name transferred to a settlement, formed from British *crocco- (Welsh croch 'loud') and *cal- 'to cal!', with *-on-a suffixes; but this seemed to require too much emendation, and he settled finally on a first clément from British *croco-, older *crouco- (Welsh crug; Cornish cruc; Irish crùach, etc.), all meaning 'hill, mound; heap, stack; tumulus.' He noted, however, that this does not make good sense in composition with *calona. We can be confident about *croco- 'tumulus' from related names; in Britain Croucincum, Pennocrucium ; abroad Crocium > Cruis (Basses-Alpes, France: HolderIi. 1173), KpouKiatonnon (Ptolemy il, 8,2; = Crouciaconnum of TP) now perhaps Carentan (Manche, France), Eliocroca AI 4016 perhaps > Lorca (Murcia, Spain), etc. A second-century graffito Ad Craucinam at La Graufesenque may contain this word (REA, LXXVI (1974), 269), though R. Marichal dérives the name from a root *crau 'pierre', following Dauzat. A deity Crougin-Toudadigoe (dat.) is recorded in CIL n. 2565, from N.W. Spain. The three British names show, if they can be trusted to this extent, différent stages of the adoption into Latin usage of original British ou, which in British became o by the late first century anduû by the end of the third; so that Croucincum records the oldest stage, Crococalana the intermediate, and Pennocrucium the latest (LHEB 37,313).

The second élément -calana must leave us in doubt. On the analogy of British *Calacum which contains *cal- 'to call' and to which Jackson assigns the meaning 'noisy stream', we could guess that the présent name has a différent suffix but the same sense: 'noisy stream (by the) tumulus' (or 'hillock', etc.), this water-name being transferred to a fort or settlement. However, at Brough (whose identification is certain), there is no stream, and the Trent, more than two miles from it, can hardly be referred to. This being so, it is possible that pre-Indo-European *cala, discussed under *Calacum, is présent here; as shown in that entry, it was combined with a Celtic élément in the two names Caladuno, Caladunum. For sense, since there is no 'rocky mount ' either at Brough, we should ave to opt for 'shelter' or perhaps 'habitation', the whole name possibly being 'tumulus-settlement'; but this must be regarded as very tentative, for thé name might, after all (as elsewhere) have been transferred from another settlement -where it made différent topographical sene — to a new one on a Roman road. For the -ana suffix, see Holder I. 134.


B. Brough 

Blason : 



- Eilert Ekwall : The concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names. 4è édition. Clarendon Press. 1936-1980.

-A.L.F Rivet & Colin Smith : The Place-Names of Roman Britain. Batsford Ltd. 1979_1982 

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