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* forum du site Marikavel : Academia Celtica

dernière mise à jour 05/02/2009 13:33:57

Définition : ville d'Angleterre; comté de Lancashire.


Extrait de la carte Ordnance Survey : Map of Roman Britain.


Étymologie :

* Rivet & Smith : 

- Ptolemy, II,3,10 : Kalagon ( = CALAGUM), a polis of the Brigantes; variantes : Kalaton ( = CALATUM). 

- Itinéraire d'Antonin, 4814 ( Iter X) : GALACUM.

DERIVATION. The form must be the result of conjecture. To take Ptolemy's initial C- and AI's medial -c- is not really arbitrary, given the frequency of c/g confusions in copying and the fact that there are good analogues for *Calacum. Some confusion has been introduced by the fact that R&C call this place Galacum and add to their sources for it the Calunio of Ravenna 1071 (112 in their numeration); we refer this to GALAVA.

The British form would have been *Calacon. Jackson in JRS, XXXVIII (1948), 55, offers the root *cal- 'to call', citing Irish coileach, Welsh ceiliog 'cock' from Celtic *caliacos, literally 'the caller'; and in Britannia, I (1970), 74, preferring *cal- to *gal- after discussion, he further relates this *cal- root to the second element in Crococalana (q.v.). British *Calacum has a precise parallel in Gaulish Calagum of TP (again with c/g scribal confusion) > Chailly-en-Brie (Seine-et-Marne, France). Other names in France go back to *Caliacus : Chaillac, Chaillé, Chailly, etc. (Holder I. 699). Birley in CW(2), XLVI (1946), 152, discusses the names and quotes Hübner on a stream called Calacum near Tarento (S. Italy). A sense 'noisy stream', literally ' (loud-)calling one' is - following Jackson - very appropriate, the stream-name (or reach-name) being transferred to a settlement, as often. For the -acum suffix, here adjectival, compare Bravoniacum.

Other names containing *cala *gala are listed by Holder I. 685 and discussed by Dauzat TF 98 ff. They include Obucala, Burdigala > Bordeaux, Cala > Chelles (Seine-et-Marne, France), and contain a pre-Indo-European root thought to be an early variant of *cara 'stone', with sense-development ' rock > shelter > habitation > fortress' (gala 'fortress' in Lithuanian). These should not be confused with *cal- in the present name, despite the association of pre-Indo-European *cala with Celtic dunon in Caladuno AI 422,5 (now Montealegre, Léon, Spain), and the same in a medieval record of Caladunum > Châlons (Mayenne, France). See further CROCOCALANA, VINDOGARA.

IDENTIFICATION. Probably the Roman fort at Burrow-in-Lonsdale ( = Overborough), Lancashire (SD 6175); the refeérence is presumably to a reach of the river Lune.


Étymologies proposées à partir des racines : 

1. *cal- = appeler, crier, faire du bruit, le mot gallois ceiliog = le coq = celui qui appelle (breton Kilc'hog), 

2. *cal < *car- = pierre, rocher.

Étymologie non résolue.

Sources :

- Eilert Ekwall : The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English place-names. Clarendon Press. fourth edition, 1980.

* Ordnance Survey : Map of Roman Britain.

* ALF Rivet & Colin Smith : The Place-Names of Roman Britain. Batsford Ltd. London. 1979.

Liens électroniques des sites Internet traitant de Burrow-in-Lonsdale / Calacum :  

* lien communal : 

* forum du site Marikavel : Academia Celtica

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